Wrongs of Passage: The Index
 

Index: Wrongs of Passage:

 author, Hank Nuwer

 Index shortened for web viewing.

 For complete index, see Wrongs of Passage by Hank Nuwer (Indiana University Press, 1999)

 academics and Greek life, 40, 55, 59-60, 124-125, 135, 146-147, 151, 177-178, 184, 218

 activists, xi-xx, 13-14, 56, 59-60, 62, 68, 74-75, 89-90, 134-137, 160, 166-168, 195-196, 211, 217; see by
 name

 African American Greek groups, xxiii, xiv-xvi, xxi, 34-35, 51, 63, 74, 129, 257, 264; see NPHC

 Aix, University of, 94

 Akron, University of (Ohio), 17

 Alabama, University of, 70, 117, 240

 Alcoholic beverages, abuse and misuse, xv-xviii, 7-13, 16, 20, 22-23, 24, 64-66, 72, 259-264, 265, 266, 267;
 reforms by fraternities, xii-xxiii, xxiv, xxvii, 3-4, 13-14, 24, 27-30, 63-65, 72, 74-75, 77; binge drinking, xx,
 xiv, xxiii-xxiv, 23-26; 57, 74; responsible drinking, 23, 63-66, 69-70, 72; underage drinking, 2, 18, 23, 61-68,
 70, 77-78, 83-91, 256-259, 263, 267, 268, 270, 273; sold near colleges, 3-4, 58, 62, 70, 117, 133-134,
 264-265; deaths related to alcohol, xvii, xviii, 15, 32, 60, 61, 76, 83-91, 247-261, 263-273; blood-alcohol level,
 16, 76, 88, 247, 251, 253, 254, 257, 261, 263-268, 270, 273, 274; college response, xiv, 22-26, 61-69, 72, 73;
 rituals and drinking, 31-32, 51, 90, 259, 260-261, 264; surveys, 57-58, 72-73; laws, 59-60, 62

 Alcorn State University (Miss.), 168, 186, 262

 Alfred University (N.Y.), xi, xx, 8-9, 43, 61, 133, 134, 172, 195, 200, 212, 223, 247

 Allegany County, N.Y., 173

 Alpha Phi Omega (subrosa chapter), 186, 262

 alumni, influence, 5, 22-23, 27, 34, 35, 53, 58, 75, 109, 116-117, 184-185, 226-227, 274; prominent
 fraternity males, Frank Norris, xviii, 58-60; Benjamin Harrison, 13-14; Neil Armstrong, 14; Lou Gehrig, 14;
 Roger Ebert, 14; Theodore Roosevelt, 58, 62, 113; William Faulkner, 59; John Jakes, 125; James Kilpatrick,
 60, 120; Bentsen, Lloyd, 79; Dolph Briscoe, 79; Bill Cosby, 120; David Letterman, 120; Ross Lockridge, Jr.,
 125-127; Booth Tarkington, 125; Tennessee Williams, 125, 292n30; Thomas Wolfe, 125; Dan Quayle, 162;
 Vernon Jordan, 162, 182; Jesse Jackson, 182, 221; Michael Jordan, 182, 221; Roy Wilkins, 182; Benjamin
 Hooks, 182; Paul Newman, 221; Mike Wallace, 221; Walter Cronkite, 221; prominent sorority females, Rita
 Mae Brown, 151, 153, 292n30; Maya Angelou, 178; Marian Anderson, 178; Charlayne Hunter-Gault, 178;
 Coretta Scott King, 178; Eleanor Roosevelt, 178; Deborah Norville, 221; Joyce Brothers, 221; Joan Didion,
 292n30; Pearl Buck, 292n30; Harper Lee, 292n30; Gail Sheehy, 292n30; Sara Davidson, 292n30

 American Civil Liberties Union, 64

 American International College (Mass.), 61, 251

 Amherst College (Mass.), 59, 76, 102, 104, 131, 238

 Anderson University (Ind.), xix-xx, 38-39, 232-233

 Anson, Jack L. (fraternal leader), 136

 Arizona, University of, 256

 Arkansas, University of, xviii, 61, 255

 Arnold, "Jim" James, xv, 40, 66-72, 75, 114-115, 212, 214, 224, 284n12; 287nn22-33passim; 288n42,
 297nn14,22

 Association of Fraternity Advisors, xii, xxiii, 63-64, 137, 195, 286n19

 Athens, Greece, 92

 athletes, xx, 1-2, 7, 14, 25, 41, 59, 69, 76, 259, 272; hazing, xvii, xx, 32, 41-43, 134, 204, 212, 259, 272, 279,
 295n19

 Auburn University (Ala.), xvi, xix, 1-31, 33, 34, 41, 74, 155, 195, 212, 281-283nn1-40passim

 Augustine, St., 92-93

 authoritarianism, 50, 118

 Avignon (hazing in Middle Ages), 94, 99

 BACCHUS, 211-212, 277

 Ball State University (Ind.), 33, 73, 76, 120, 150, 171

 Ballou, Maisie, xv, 173, 230-231, 235-236, 297n23, 298n30; Ballou, Ray, xv, 173; Ballou v. Sigma Nu, xviii,
 173, 230, 235, 298n29

 band hazing, 32

 Baylor University (Texas), 243

 behavior, submission xi; code of silence, 16, 32-33; negligence, 32; individual actions in groups, 32; group
 identity, 36-40, 39-40; primary group, 39; dominance 39, cult-like groups, 44-47, 48, 49, 51; control and
 power, 45-46, 50, 114; see theories

 bejauni ("yellowbills"), 95-96, 99

 Benbow, Lillian, 178-179

 Bennett College (N.C.), 176

 Berytus (early hazing), 92

 Bethany College (W.V.), 117

 Biggs, Robert A. (Bob), xv, 27, 28, 29, 59, 77, 137, 210, 224, 228-229, 282n31, 288n46

 "binge drinking," see alcoholic beverages

 Black Issues in Higher Education, 135, 176, 199, 295n1

 Bloomsburg University (Pa.), 61, 156, 263-264, 263-264, 268

 Bluefield State College (W.V.), 61, 244

 Bolles, Larry, 190, 198-199, 296n23, 296n4

 Bowdoin College (Maine), xi, 59, 64, 74, 76, 131, 267

 Bowling Green State University (Ohio), 61, 253

 Bradford, Lissa, 29, 65, 135, 153

 Bradley University (Ill.), 53

 Brant, Jonathan, xv, 17, 54, 61, 62, 63, 72, 73, 74, 287nn34-35

 broken pledges (term) xxiv; Broken Pledges (video of Black Issues in Higher Education videoconference),
 176, 295n1

 Brown University (R.I.), 196, 241

 Bullock, Marilyn, xv-xvi, 151, 154, 159, 163, 294n5,9

 Bush, George W., 171-172, 221

 Butler University (Ind.), 134, 178

 bystander deaths, 105, 238, 254, 256, 266, 268

 California State University, Chico, 252; Long Beach, 250; Davis, 251

 California University, Berkeley, 58-60, 78-79, 242, 258, 260; Los Angeles, 72-73, 269; Southern California,
 242; Santa Barbara, 242

 campus crime and safety, xvi, 32, 33, 36, 39, 61, 67, 77, 118-119, 136, 139, 216-217, 234, 258

 Canada, xxvi, 254

 Carlone, Michael, xvi, 44, 63, 73, 75, 137, 202, 288n41

 Carnegie Mellon University (Pa.), 61, 254, 264

 Carthage (hazing), 92-93

 Case Western University (Ohio), 247

 Cease Hazing Activities and Deaths (CHAD), 7, 27, 211, 277

 Center for Advanced Social Research, 53, 57-58, 74, 135

 Center for the Study of Pan-Hellenic Issues, xxi, 176

 Center for the Study of the Fraternity, 205-206

 Central Oklahoma, University of, 52

 Cheyney University of Pennsylvania, 110-111, 245

 Chicago, University of (Il.), 129

 Chronicle of Higher Education, The, xx, 74, 88, 155, 215

 Citadel, The, 113-114

 civil suits 16, 18-21, 22, 29, 41, 52, 88, 113, 148-149, 168, 172-175, 183-184, 208-209; See civil suits by
 name

 Clark, Thomas Arkle (educator), 128

 Clarkson University (N.Y.), xxi, 68, 170, 248, 270 class hazing, 104-111; hazing- and initiation-related
 deaths, Jonathan D. Torrance, 104, 238; Henrietta Jackson, 105, 238; John Butler Groves, 237; Eldridge
 Griffith, 240; Ludwig Von Gerichten Jr., 240; Frank McCullough, 240; Hugh C. Moore, 239; Leighton
 Mount, 240; Frances W. Obenchain, 239; Isaac Rand, 110, 239 Louis Aubere, 241; Ainsworth Brown, 241;
 Duncan Saunders, 240; Theodore Ben, 245

 Clemson University (S.C.), xxv, 157, 173, 257

 Clery, Constance (Connie), xvi, 217, 278

 Clinton, William J. (Bill), 64, 77

 Colby College (Maine), 64, 76, 131

 Colgate University (N.Y.), 240

 Coll, Edward G., Jr., xx; see also strategies section

 College of the City of New York, 117

 College of New Jersey, 273

 College of William and Mary (Va.), 102

 Colorado State University, 61, 219

 Colorado, University of, 65, 77, 252, 263

 Columbia Teachers College (N.Y.), xxv, 53

 Columbia University (N.Y.), 50, 103, 117

 Committee to Halt Useless College Killings (CHUCK), xx, 9, 19, 27, 133, 136, 211-212, 277

 communities near colleges, 6, 37, 58, 77-78, 97-98, 99, 117

 Conner, Deborah Shaw, 21, 30, 281n4, 281n30, 282n40;n61

 consent (informed) issue, 29, 39, 41-43, 167, 170-173, 235

 Core Institute, 157, 207, 275-276

 Corps of Cadets (Texas A & M), 113, 251

 Cornell University (N.Y.), 105, 108, 117, 123, 178, 238, 257, 262

 Creighton University (Neb.), 250

 culture of honor, 93

 Dartmouth College (N.H.), 25, 103; Dartmouth Medical School, Project Cork Institute, 275

 Davis, C. Grant, xvi, 3, 17, 21, 22, 24, 41, 281n4; 284n18; 286n19

 Davis, Edith, 51, 284n35; Davis v. Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Inc., 284n35

 deaths, failure to influence social change, xiii, 76, 90, 124

 Delta Kappa (absorbed by Sigma Pi), 249

 Delta Kappa Epsilon, xvi, 58, 61-64, 67, 89, 117, 128-129, 238, 239, 241, 242, 243, 267, 271

 Denison University (Ohio), 156

 DePauw University (Ind.), xvi-xviii, xxi, 34, 48, 76, 138, 149-150, 159-175

 DeSousa, D. Jason, xvi, 135, 178, 182, 187-188, 190, 191

 Dickinson College (Pa.), 61, 258

 dinks (beanies), 34, 111

 district attorney actions, 132, 154, 164, 167, 175, 243

 Drake University (Iowa), 29

 Drexel University (Pa.), 258

 drugs, 43, 184-185, 227-228, 265, 272, 274, 282-283n39; death, 227

 Duke University (N.C.), 69

 Duquesne University (Pa.), 157

 Easlick, David K., Jr. xvi, 62-63, 204

 Eastern Illinois University, 154, 156, 210, 243-244

 Eberly, Charles, 210-211

 Edinboro University (Pa.), 213

 Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention, 275, 277

 Eigen, Lewis (alcohol expert), 62, 197-198

 Ellison, Ralph, 187-190

 Elmhurst College (Ill.), 266

 Elmira College (N.Y.), 111

 Emory University (Ga.) Health Sciences Central Library, 279

 equator ceremony, 56, 111

 ethical issues, 32-33, 40, 75, 76-77

 eversores (Overturners, Carthage student group), 92-93

 fagging, 99-100, 101

 female complaint(s) against fraternities, 22-23, 61, 134, 139, 145-146, 216-217; see also campus crime

 female colleges and hazing, 104, 152-153

 Ferris State College (Mich.), 253, 274

 Fierberg, Douglas, xvi, 18, 52, 148, 176, 183-184, 279

 fires, 61, 251, 258, 264, 265, 268, 272, 274; victims (guests and members), Israel D. Edelman (Indiana), 251;
 Ryan Hamilton (UC Berkeley), 258; Natalia Avril James (UC Berkeley), 258; Robert Douglas Sciutto (UC
 Berkeley), 258; Kyle Barton (Bloomsburg), 264; Debbie Keler (visitor, Bloomsburg), 264; Derrick Mooney
 (Bloomsburg), 264; James R. Palmer (Bloomsburg), 264; Joseph Peter Selena (Bloomsburg), 264; Joanna
 Howell (North Carolina) 265-266; Anne Smith (North Carolina), 265-266; Mark Strickland (North
 Carolina), 265-266; Josh Weaver (North Carolina), 265-266; Ben Woodruff (North Carolina), 265-266;
 Christopher Mirch (Radford), 268; Casey William Polatsek, (Ohio Wesleyan) 268; Michael Minger (Murray
 State), 272-273; Jered Adams (Missouri-Rolla) 274

 Florida Atlantic University (Alpha Tau Omega delegate dies in fall), 73, 259

 Florida, University of, 153, 187, 257

 founder(s) of Greek groups, xxiv, 13, 24, 28, 30, 116, 119, 120-121, 122, 135-136

 France, 95-96

 Franklin and Marshall College (Pa.), 106-107, 241

 Franklin Seminary (Ky.), 104, 237

 fraternal alcohol syndrome, 133

 Fraternal Law, 278-279

 fraternities, male, definition, xxiv; camaraderie, 3, 58-60, 122-123, 136; house conditions, 8, 19, 22, 122-123,
 128; history, 13-14, 59; associated by public with alcohol, 20-21, 24-25, 28, 63; 66-72; social life, 29-30, 39,
 40, 42, 66-67, 123, 128, 135-136; status on campus, 54, 71-72, 123, 128; opponents, 27-28, 57, 64; see
 addicted organizations

 Fraternity Executives Association (FEA), xxiv, 24, 31, 33, 123, 137

 fraternities, deaths in national professional, Phi Beta Pi (Robert Perry), 241; Phi Sigma Epsilon (Billy
 Benes), 249

 Fraternity of St. Sebastian, 95, 289n7

 free association issue, xiii, xvi

 Freeman, Mark, xvii, 160, 167, 171-172, 196

 Friendly Fire (NIC/NPC anti-hazing film), 21

 frontier tradition, 89, 90-91, 116-117, 118, 121, 123

 Frostburg State University (Md.), xvii, 42, 210, 232, 267

 Future Farmers of America (FFA), 32

 Gallaudet University (Washington, D.C.), 34-35

 Georgetown College (Ky.), xviii, 242

 Georgetown University (Washington, D.C.), 110

 Georgia Southern College, 16

 Georgia Institute of Technology, 260

 Georgia, University of, 61, 69, 156, 252

 Germany, 95-97

 Gettysburg College (Pa.), 215

 Gordon, Michael V.W., xvii, 74, 75, 135, 176-177, 190-191, 203, 219, 287n39, 296n16, 297n19, 298n9

 Greek-letter societies, attempts to ban, xvi, 25, first Greek to die xviii, 238; philanthropies, 23, 26-27, 80-82,
 140, 215; symbols, 32, 54, 56

 Grove City College (Pa.), 244,

 Haben, Alice xvii, 134, 166-168, 174, 204, 259, 279, 295n19

 Haines, Michael (educator), 73

 Hamilton College (N.Y.), 117, 156, 216-217, 240

 Hampden-Sydney College (Va.), 61, 251

 Harris, Richard (educator), 76, 288n44

 Harrold, Roger (educator), 205, 297n8

 Harten, Ruth (anti-Greek stand as activist), xvii, 78, 79, 87-91, 288-289nn50-70passim

 Hartwick College (N.Y.), 73, 270

 Harvard University (formerly College; Mass.), xx, 24, 25, 27-28, 57-58, 100-103

 Harvard School of Public Health xx, 24, 27-28, 57, 276

 hazing, historical accounts, xiii, 36, 92-115, 119, 122; physical hazing, xv-xvi, xxvi, 5, 24, 31-36, 47, 51, 83,
 94-95, 100, 127, 177-179, 257, 264, 271; hell night and week, xxv, 55, 244, 263; mental hazing, xxv, xxvi, 7-8,
 35, 47, 53, 95-96, 142-149, 156-157, 166; servitude, 5, 34, 36, 42, 101, 103, 250, 269; similar to date rape,
 31, 167; revenge factor, 31-32, 37-38, 52, 56, 106; inadequate sleep, 5, 35, 36, 37, 42, 71, 244, 250, 256, 261;
 road trips, kidnapping, 35, 61, 128-129, 226-227, 242, 243, 244, 254; demeaning acts, 35, 125-127, 156-157;
 shunning, 36, 188; underground hazing, 26; implicit hazing, 37; first U.S. death, 104; intellectual hazing,
 52-53, 59, 96-97; kangaroo court, 99, 104; scavenger hunt, 245

 Hazing (Newsletter) Listserv, 276, 297n11

 Headley, Matt, 164, 164-165, 170-171

 Heidelberg, University of, 99

 high school hazing, 166, 192, 212-213, 230-231, 279

 High School Hazing (book by author), 283n3

 higher education, difficulty eliminating hazing, xi-xii, 24-25; difficulty addressing alcohol misuse, 65-66;
 under criticism, 88-89; Presidentís Leadership Group, 206-207, 296n5

 Higher Education Amendment of 1998, 64

 Higher Education Research Institute (UCLA), 72-73

 Hofstra University (N.Y.), 174

 honor society hazing, 24

 Howard University (Washington, D.C), 178, 189

 Huston-Tillotson College (Texas), 156

 Idaho, University of, 65

 Illinois, University of, xxix, 128

 Indiana State University, 225

 Indiana University (Bloomington), xv, xxvi, xviii, 24, 51, 61, 66, 107, 125-127, 241, 245; 251, 273; (Richmond),
 251

 Ingelhart, Louis (educator), 33, 34, 69

 initiations, 34; definition, xxv; three stages, 55-56

 in loco parentis, 25, 122-123

 Iowa State University 14-15, 48-49, 133, 246

 Iowa, University of 65, 266

 Ithaca College (N.Y.), 113, 134, 204, 249, 257

 jail, rare punishment in hazing cases, 168-169

 Jews, exclusion; anti-Semitism, 35, 63, 129

 job-related hazing, 32, 40, 41

 literary societies, 122

 Johnson & Wales University (R.I.), 263

 Joynt, Julie L., xvii, 42, 198, 210, 232, 235, 296n3, 297nn10,25,28

 judicial groups, 18-19, 22, 23, 33, 34, 168

 Justinian I, 93

 Kansas State University, 61, 188, 255

 Kansas, University of, 109, 123, 124, 252

 Kent State University (Ohio), 134, 174, 179

 Kentucky, University of, 65, 105, 108, 109, 240, 262, 272

 Kenyon College (Ohio), 239

 Kershner, Frederick D. (Greek anti-hazing activist), xv, xvii, xxv, 53, 103, 122, 297n16

 Kuh, George (educator), 74

 Kuh, George (educator), 74

 Lafayette College (Pa.), 266

 Lamar University (Texas), 253

 laws, hazing, 9, 27, 29, 132, 165, 167-175passim, 211, 261; laws passed in forty-one states and under
 consideration in forty-second, Vermont, p. 166

 Lehigh University (Pa.), xvi, 227-228, 243, 265, 269

 Lincoln University (Pa.), 25

 Littlefield, Maurice (Mo) xviii, 64, 136-137, 213, 225, 230, 298n29

 little sister(s), xx1v, 145-146, 158; Daughters of Lee, 246

 Lockridge, Larry, xxix, 125, 292n31

 local female fraternity, hazing in Krimson Kourt

 punished, Huston-Tillotson College, 156; Texas-Austin Texas Cowgirls, 156; death (by institution), Virginia
 State College, 244; death by pledge name, Norsha Lynn Delk, 244

 local male fraternities and clubs, xix, xx, 8-9, 43, 61, 243, 244, 246, 247, 248, 250, 251, 256, 259, 260, 264,
 268, 271; by institution, Alpha Delta Omega (Hartwick), 270; Adelphikos (Grove City College), 244; Alpha
 Omega Lambda (Towson State University), 250; Baylor (University) Chamber of Commerce, 243; Chi Chi Chi
 (Pierce College), 243; Delta Pi (Bloomsburg), 268; FEX (Wisconsin-Superior), 250; Kappa Gamma
 (Gallaudet), 34-35; Klan Alpine (Alfred University), xix, xx, 8-9, 43, 61; Sundowners (Nevada-Reno), 61, 244;
 Tau Gamma Theta (California State-Chico), 252; Triniteers (Trinity University), 260; Wine Psi Phi (Virginia
 State College), 179, 244; Zeta Chi (American International College), 251; deaths, members and pledges, Fred
 Bronner, 243; Anthony J. Busalaki, 256; Rick Cerra, 250; John E. Clifton, 243; John Curtin, 244; John
 Davies, 61, 244; Thomas M. Elliot, 244; Robert Etheridge, 248; Gary Gilliland, 244; Gabriel "Gabe" Higgins,
 xvii, 79-91passim, 264; Rob Jordan, 73, 270; Jay Lenaghan, 251; Martin Loew, 239; Jeffrey Franklin Long,
 252; Stephen J. McNamara, 247; Rudolph Mion, 244; Mike Nisbet, 43, 259; Christopher Pederson, 260;
 Tristan G. Pinzke, 73, 259; "Ricky" M. Siegel, 250; Charles M. (Chuck) Stenzel, xi, xx, 8, 9, 19, 43, 247

 Loras College (Iowa), 29, 61, 133, 247, 282n37

 Loser, Teresa, xviii, 34, 48, 76, 138, 157, 163, 165, 294-295nn2-8,10,13

 Louisiana State University, xix, 43, 61, 70, 270

 Louisana Tech University, 267

 Lowell, University of Massachusetts, 74, 249

 Luther, Martin, 98-99

 MacArthur, Douglas, 112

 Martin, "Bill" William A. III, 64, 137

 Maryland, University of (Baltimore), death, 148, 239 (College Park), 77, 180-184, 243

 Masons, 13-14, 117, 118

 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), xviii, 43, 61, 65, 128-129, 239, 242, 270-271

 Massachusetts, University of, 117, 119, 206

 media and Greek groups, Animal House, xii, 130, 227; 24, 26, 27, 33-34, 60, 69, 70, 72, 107-111, 124-125,
 129-130, 134-135, 154-157, 196; Dazed and Confused, 213

 medical school hazing, 40, 197

 Miami University (Ohio), 13-14, 23, 77, 102, 117, 119, 120

 Michigan State University, 77

 Michigan, University of, 14, 103-104, 106, 119, 272, 274

 Middle Ages (medieval), xiii, 93-99

 Middlebury College (Vt.), 64, 76, 131

 military (U.S.) hazing, 32, 111, 209-210

 military service academies, 111-112; military college-, cadet-, club-related deaths, Oscar Booz, 239; William
 R. Bowlus, 239; Thomas Fitzgerald, 245-246; Bruce Ward Goodrich, 251

 Mississippi State University, xviii, 249, 262

 Mississippi, University of, xix, 20, 61, 117, 254, 273

 Missouri, University of (Columbia), 53, 57-58, 60-61, 125, 241, 252; Rolla, 43, 73, 246, 256, 259, 274

 Monmouth College (IL.), 159

 Monmouth College (N.J.), 244

 Morehouse College, 38-39, 257

 Morgan State University (Md.), 176, 182, 199-200

 Multi-Jurisdictional Task Force, Syphazing.org , xviii, 278

 Murray State University (Ky), 272-273

 Muse, William Van, xvi, 16, 17-19, 24-26, 138, 155, 202

 National Collegiate Athletic Association and Alfred University hazing survey, xx, 212, 297n21

 National Interfraternity Conference, xii-xiii, xv, xvii, xxiii, xxvi, 8, 23, 40, 60, 53, 54, 62-78passim, 124-125,
 278-279; members mentioned: Acacia, 266; Alpha Chi Rho, 117, 258; Alpha Delta Omega, 73, 270; Alpha
 Delta Phi, 117, 119, 155, 253; Alpha Epsilon Pi, 248, 254, 257; Alpha Kappa Lambda, xxiii, 65, 173, 247;
 Alpha Kappa Sigma, 267; Alpha Sigma Phi, 117, 252; Alpha Tau Omega, 29, 51, 52, 73, 117, 125, 128, 157,
 242, 257, 259; Beta Sigma Delta, 264; Beta Theta Pi, 89, 117, 119, 127, 253, 259, 270; Chi Phi, 117, 157;
 Chi Psi, 117, 264; Delta Chi, 4, 60, 117, 241, 263, 267; Delta Kappa Phi, 249; Delta Phi, 117, 132, 243, 248;
 Delta Psi, 117; Delta Pi, 155, 268; Delta Sigma Phi, xix-xx, xxiii, 70, 117, 195, 255, 264; Delta Tau Delta, xvii,
 xxv, 4, 82, 89, 117, 122, 134-135, 217, 242, 254, 256; Delta Upsilon 117, 128, 185, 242; Farmhouse
 Fraternity, xxiii, 137; Kappa Alpha Order, 24, 117, 173, 246, 251, 254; Kappa Alpha Society, 116, 123-124;
 Kappa Alpha Psi, xvii, 51, 135, 169, 170, 174, 177, 178, 264 [see also Kappa Alpha Psi as NPHC member];
 Kappa Sigma, 24, 79, 80, 87-88, 117, 123, 131, 242, 258, 262; Lambda Chi Alpha, xvii-xviii, 26, 76, 136-137,
 252, 255, 265, 266, 269; Omicron Delta Kappa, 17; Phi Delta Gamma, 43; Phi Delta Theta, xv, xxiii, 2-12,
 13-16, 28-29, 33, 59, 63-64, 70, 77, 117, 246, 247, 248, 250, 255, 262, 268, 272, 282n18; 286-287n19; Phi
 Gamma Delta, xviii, xxiii, xxix, 43, 58-60, 64, 65, 125-127, 260, 265, 269, 274; Phi Kappa Phi, 10, 17, 69, 70,
 89, 121, 136, 137, 174, 249, 253, 263; Phi Kappa Psi, 89, 174, 121, 219, 249, 253, 263; Phi Kappa Sigma,
 xxiii, 89, 91, 258; Phi Kappa Tau, 120, 136, 256; Phi Sigma Kappa, 42, 65, 117, 119, 258; Pi Kappa Alpha,
 xviii, xxv, 117, 122, 242, 245, 249, 254, 256, 257, 262, 266, 272, 273, 274; Pi Kappa Phi, 157, 174, 267, 268;
 Pi Lambda Phi, 117, 185, 264; Psi Upsilon, 117, 120, 124; Sigma Alpha Epsilon, xix, 43, 59, 70, 117, 120,
 135, 156, 257, 260, 270; Sigma Alpha Mu, 243, 262; Sigma Chi, xix, 48-49, 117, 120, 121, 128, 250, 265,
 273, 292n17,32; Sigma Kappa, 48; Sigma Nu, xv, xxiii, 28, 64, 89, 117, 136-137, 136, 195, 204, 229-230, 240,
 248, 249, 250; Sigma Phi Epsilon, xvi, xix-xx, 63, 73, 74, 117, 136, 195, 254, 269; 287n40; Sigma Phi Society
 117; Sigma Pi 24, 240, 250, 254, 258, 262; Sigma Tau Gamma, 250; Tau Gamma Theta, 252; Theta Chi,
 xx-xxi, 23-24, 28, 47, 64, 67-68, 70, 117, 122, 170, 223-224, 251-253, 257, 270, 272, 273; Theta Delta Chi,
 117, 234; Theta Xi, 117, 135-136, 215, 247; Zeta Beta Tau, 117, 132, 137, 219, 244, 251, 262; Zeta Psi, 117,
 247, 271, 274; deaths of members, pledges, guests (former member Delta Kappa Epsilon included) from all
 causes: Aaron B. Ebbert, 263; Jeremy Abcug, 262; Michael Adams, 260; David Andres, 247; John Andrews,
 260; Brian S. Arena, 266; Nicholas G. Armstrong, 274; Jon Asher 244; Thomas H. Baer, 256; L. Barry
 Ballou, xv, xviii, 173, 230, 235-236, 249; Lex Dean Batson, 249; Edward F. Berkeley, 124, 238; Atif Bhatti,
 70, 264; Brad Bing, 251; Joseph Bisanz, 273; Michael Bishop, 244; William Ashcom Bullock, 240; John
 Calkins, 250; Steve Call, 249; James Callahan, 76, 174, 255; Max B. Caulk, 242; Justin Chambers, 264;
 Thomas Clark, 242; Samuel Mark Click, 245; Harry "Skip" Cline Jr., 254; Todd Cruikshank, 266; Randall
 Crustals, 246; Brian Cursack, 243; Kingsley Davidson, 248; Scott Davis, 253; John Lars Elfervig, 267;
 Mitchell Fishkin, 243; William E. Flowers, 244; Gerald L. Foletta, 242; Tim Foreman, 269; Nathan Frank,
 269; Richard C. Fuhs, 248; Michael Garofalo, 266; Byron Gauntt, 259; Merle George, 246; Christopher
 Giacherio, 274; Theodore Glassnow, 242; Jose Greco, 272; James C. Haughay, 254; Paul Hayward, 247; Sean
 Hickey, 256; Bryan Higgins, 255; Rochne Kevin Hold (at Alpha Tau Omega conference), 259; Curtis
 Huntley, 249; Jack L. Ivey Jr., 91, 273; J.B. Joynt, (xvii, 42, 210, 232, 235; Glen Kersh, 240; Brett Klein,
 258; Scott Krueger, xviii, 43, 65, 270-271; John Laduca, 271; David Lallemand, 258; Terry Linn 263;
 Randall Logan, 246; Mortimer N. Leggett, xviii, 123-124, 238; Matthew S. McCoy, 256; Nolte McElroy, 241;
 Jonathan S. McNamara, 260-261; David Masciantonio, 248; Peter Mertz, 242; John Miller, 265; John
 Moncello, 260; Dudley R. Moore, IV, 273; Dean J. Niswonger. 242; Jeffrey Nolting, 255; Binaya "Bini" Oja,
 xxi, 68, 170, 270; Joseph Parrella, 249; Brian Pearce, 269; Gregg S. Phillips, 256; Stuart L. Pierson, 239;
 Michael Quaintance, 247; Terrence Ward Quinn, 262; Dennis Redenbeck, 14-15, 246; Drew Robinson, 271;
 George Rocha, 272; Brian Toshio Sanders, 269; Chad Saucier, xix, 1-30, 43, 50, 262; Peter D. Scott, 263;
 Mark Seeberger, 89, 174, 253; Michael G. Simkins, 265; James J. Smith, 263; Stanford W. "Wes" Smythe,
 262; George Steinmetz Jr., 241; Bradley Swanson, 266; Richard Swanson, 242; Joel Swirsky, 254; Michael
 E. Tobin, 274; Steven Velazquez, 269-270; William "Trey" Walker, 269; Paul Walsh, 255; Ronald Edward
 Wells, 252; Thomas J. White Jr., 253; Kevin Wilson, 246; Richard Winder, 242; Bruce Wiseman, 247;
 Jason Henry Wittrock, 263; Robert "Brad" Wohltman, 250; Benjamin Wynne, xix, 43, 70, 270; Samuel
 Zahavy 254;

 National Panhellenic Conference (NPC), xii-xiii, xx, 29, 43, 57-58, 62-65, 74-75, 78, 278; NPC members
 mentioned: Alpha Chi Omega, 135, 149-150, 163, 219, 257; Alpha Delta Pi, 267; Alpha Gamma Delta, xv,
 154, 171, 243; Alpha Phi, 252; Chi Omega, 29, 135, 156, 215, 272; Chi Sigma Rho, 156; Chi Upsilon, 156;
 Delta Delta Delta, 135, 151, 153-154; Delta Gamma, xxv, 135, 215, 271; Delta Zeta, 135, 274; Kappa Alpha
 Theta, 149, 157, 252; Kappa Delta, 156-157; Kappa Kappa Gamma, xv-xvi, xviii, xxi, 135, 151, 156,
 159-171passim, 258; Phi Mu, xix, 140-149, 293n3; Pi Beta Phi, 149; Sigma Delta Tau, 156; Zeta Tau Alpha,
 135, 152; deaths from all causes of sorority members and pledges, Donna Bedinger, 243; Courtney Cantor,
 29, 272, 282n39; Jeanna M. Carkoski, 252; Sherri Ann Clark, 252; Brenda D. Goben, 267; Natalia Avril
 James, 258; Paige Payne Miller, 271

 National Pan-Hellenic Council (NPHC), xxvi, xxvi, 75, 278 reforms xvii, xxiii, 61, 74; member institutions by
 alphabetical listing, Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, 177-179; Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, xxi, 39, 257, 261;
 Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, 156, 177-179; Iota Phi Theta Fraternity, 177; Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity xvii,
 51, 135, 169, 170, 174, 177, 178, 264; Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, 120, 121, 177, 180-184, 215, 251, 253, 273
 (unauthorized chapters 245, 246); Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, 34, 47, 135, 177, 263, 273; Sigma Gamma Rho
 Sorority, 177; Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, 177; injuries to Joseph Snell, 180-184, 296nn12,15; deaths resulting
 from miscellaneous causes, NPHC members and pledges, Gregory Batipps, 168, 261; Michael Davis, 51, 169,
 174, 264; Joel Harris, 39, 257; Harold Thomas, 253; Vann Watts, 251

 Nevada, University of (Reno), 61, 244

 New Hampshire, University of, xviii, 257, 266

 New Mexico Military Institute, 240

 New Orleans Saints, 197

 New York, State University of (Albany), 255; (Plattsburgh), 254; (Potsdam), 134, 157

 New York University, xxix, 117

 Newman, John Henry, 121

 North Carolina State, 269-270

 North Carolina, University of, 61, 110, 124, 154-155, 239, 246, 264-266

 North Dakota, University of, 48-49, 248

 Northern Arizona University, 65

 Northern Illinois University, 33, 61, 73, 133, 244, 265

 Northwestern University, 240, 241

 Norwich University, 113, 117

 Oakland University (Mi.), 156

 Ohio Wesleyan University, 61, 268

 Ohio University, 17, 77, 227

 Oklahoma State University 65, 246

 Oklahoma, University of, 263

 Oregon State University, 61, 267

 Owen, Kent C. (essayist), 136

 Oxford (England), 98, 100, 105

 "paper" members, NPHC, 190

 parents and student groups, 6-7, 21, 54-55, 123-124, 128-129, 140-149, 275; "Parents Guide to
 Fraternities," 21, 282n29

 Paris, University of, 97

 party deaths, Cameron Brett, 267; Keith Colangelo, 253; Valerie Cole, 268; Gregory Cooney, 262; Todd M.
 Crane, 257; David Creager, 265; Eric Devine, 265; Shannon Gill, 257; Jeanne Goldberg, 254; Michelle
 Greenleaf, 249; Allan Montero Hewer, 274; Robert Harris Jr., 250; Terrel Johnson, 247; Jennifer Kairis,
 272; Matthew Krull, 267; Brian C. Lefever, 258; Michael Leffler, 252; Amanda MacDonald, 263; Bernard
 McBride, 263; Jamie Cyndra McGee, 265; Patrick McGinty, 247; Brian McKittrick, 250; Chris Meigs, 250;
 Jason T. Miller, 257; Rosario Pagnotti, 258; Jon Partipilo, 266; Ryan Schrader, 266; Mike Spagoletti, 14,
 248; Christopher Todd Stewart, 264

 peer pressure xxi, 46, 47, 91, 259

 Pennington, Tom (fraternal leader), 137

 Pennsylvania State University, 61; 66, 77, 255

 Pennsylvania, University of, 246, 274

 Phi Beta Kappa, 102, 116, 124, 159

 Philippines deaths, 260, 271

 Phillips University (Oklahoma), 111

 Pierce College (Ca.), 132, 243

 Pittsburg State University (Ks.), 250

 Pittsburgh, University of (Pa.), 61, 70, 264

 pledging, xii-xiii, xxiii, xvi-xix, 3-4, 24, 44, 74, 41, 43, 54, 122, 126, 254; sneaks, xxvi, 52, 56, 153-154, 249,
 256

 Plymouth State College (N.H.), 77

 police, xvii, xix-xx, 3, 8, 10-12, 20, 23, 24, 33, 38-39, 43-44, 65, 66, 77-78, 86-87, 232-235, 250, 264, 266

 Poncin, William E., 167

 Princeton University (N.J.), 117-118

 pro-hazing remarks, 35, 56, 59, 98-99, 100, 114

 Purdue University (Ind.), 61, 108, 235, 239, 269; PU student denounced, 172; police, 235

 Queens College (N.Y.), 245

 racism by individual chapters, atonement, 219

 Radford University (Va.), 268

 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (N.Y.), 117

 Rhode Island, University of 65, 258, 263

 Rhodes College (Tn.), 74

 Richmond, University of (Va.), xviii, 74, 117, 228, 256, 287n40

 Rider College (N.J.), 61, 253, 263

 "right to associate" controversy, 63

 risk management, xvi, xxvi, 16, 27, 70, 72-73

 rituals of hazing and pre-initiations, xv-xvi, xxv, 5, 15, 29, 31-36, 42, 71, 80, 90, 113, 129-130, 242-246, 249,
 250, 251, 253, 269-270

 Roanoke College (Va.), 168

 Robert Morris College (Pa.), 254

 Rochester Institute of Technology (N.Y.), 213

 Rollins University (Fla.), 272

 roof deaths/fatalfalls (houses, cars), xii, xxvii, 15, 29, 247, 252, 254-274passim

 Ruck, Frank J., Jr. (Greek anti-hazing activist), xviii-xix, 135-136, 204, 293n44

 rush, xxvii, 38, 49, 225, 241, 243, 252, 255, 258, 267-268; proposal to ban, 292; deaths, H. T. Gehl (Brown),
 241; Wayne P. Kennedy (Tulane, Delta Kappa Epsilon), 243; Steven Butterworth (Dickinson, Alpha Chi Rho),
 258; Brian Cook (Virginia, Pi Kappa Phi), 267-268; David Dunshee (Stanford, Zeta Psi), 255; rushee
 (Missouri-Columbia, Lambda Chi Alpha), 252; Todd Prince (Arkansas, Pi Kappa Alpha), 255

 Rutgers University (N.J.), 61, 70, 76, 248, 255, 272

 St. Johnís Military College (Md.), 107, 239

 St. Johnís University (N.Y), 245-246

 St. Louis University (Mo.), 241

 Sanders, Sherri, 79, 90-91, 289n69

 San Diego State University (Ca.), 23

 Santa Fe High School (N.M) 212-213; student nearly dies, 212, 230-231

 Saucier, Rita xix, 1, 2, 3, 6-8, 12, 15-18, 26-27, 41, 43, 70, 277, 281-282n1-35 passim, 284n19, 287n29,
 297n24; Saucier v. Phi Delta Theta, 20-22, 88

 Security on Campus, xvi, 278

 secret societies (adult), 13-14, 32, 117-118

 Sinclair, Upton, 11, 17-18

 Smith, Walt, xix-xx, 38-39, 232-233

 South Carolina, University of, xv, xviii, 61, 247, 249

 Southeast Missouri State, 51, 264

 Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, 73

 Southern Mississippi, University of, 2

 Southwest Texas State University, 274

 Southwestern University xviii, 272

 spirit club(s) xvii, xxvii, 32, 43, 73, 79-91, 256, 264; St. Patís Board (Missouri-Rolla) 43, 73, 208-209, 256,
 259; Texas Cowboys, xvii, 79-91passim, 264

 Stanford University 29, 61, 255

 Stevens, Eileen, xx, 19, 27, 33-35, 44, 173, 277; Chuck Stenzel v. Alfred University, 173

 student affairs, 16-19, 21-24, 33, 43, 48, 61-62, 67-68, 71-72, 73-74, 90-91, 121-122

 student culture, xii, 25

 student guilds, hazing practices, 93-99

 sub-rosa groups, individuals, xxvii, 60-61, 244, 245, 246, 253, 267, 268,

 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Association (SAMSA), 277

 suicide, xix, 32, 258, 266, 267, 269, 271, 272-274

 Swarthmore College (Pa.), 242

 Syring, Maureen, xx, 43, 52, 61, 62, 74, 75, 77-78

 Tau Kappa Epsilon, 17, 61, 244, 253, 255, 258, 263, 269-270, 272, 274

 Tennessee State University xxi, 61, 251

 Tennessee, University of, 256

 Texas A & M University, 61, 113, 251, 269

 Texas Tech University, 245

 Texas, University of, xvii, 15, 29, 61, 79-91, 107, 156, 241, 250, 256, 259, 273

 Texas Tech University, xviii

 theories, of equity, 38; Groupthink, xxiv-xxv, 50, 281n1, 284n33; Greekthink xxiv-xxv, 31-56, 67, 85, 131,
 137-138, 172; of social exchange, 37; addictive organizations, 24-25, 30, 57-73passim; 66-72, 114-115,
 223-224

 Theta Nu Epsilon, 60-61, 241

 Tiger, Lionel, xx, 56, 284n30

 Timmes, Mark, 137

 Toledo, University of (Ohio), 61, 252

 Towson State University, 250

 Trinity College (Conn.), 117

 Trinity University (Texas), 260

 Truman State University; 61, 247

 Tulane University (La.), 61, 243

 Union College (N.Y.), 117, 120

 U.S. Department of Education, 23

 United States Military Academy, 103, 112, 239

 United States Naval Academy, 112-113

 University of South Florida, 267, 273

 Unrecognized chapter members deaths, Hubert L. Spake, Jr. (Missouri-Columbia), 241; Richard Gowins
 (Northern Illinois), 244; Robert Bazile (Pennsylvania), 246; John Stinner (Frostburg), 267; Leslie Ware
 (Alcorn State), 262

 Utah State University, 65

 Valparaiso University (Ind.), 248

 values, 29-30, 34, 40, 59, 68, 72, 122-123, 128-129, 220, 227

 Vauclain, Jacques L., xx, 137, 296n6

 Vermont, University of, 61, 258, 260-261

 violent deaths of Greeks and guests, 32, 247, 248, 254, 255, 257, 263, 264, 267, 269, 273, 274

 Virginia Commonwealth University, 66

 Virginia Military Institute (VMI), 114, 117, 167

 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 247, 249, 268, 271

 Virginia State College, 248

 Virginia, University of, 66, 70, 102, 117, 168, 250, 254, 261, 267

 Wabash College (Ind.), 119, 290-291n38

 Washington and Jefferson College (Pa.), 121

 Washington and Lee University (Va.), 117, 270

 Washington State University 65, 77

 Washington, University of, 61, 253, 271

 Wechsler, Henry, xx, 24-28, 57, 74, 201-202

 Western Ontario, University of, 254

 Western Illinois University, xvii, 43, 179-180, 259, 279, 283n3, 295n19

 Westol, Dave, xx-xxi, 23-24, 47, 64, 67, 68, 122

 Widener College, 140-149,

 William Paterson College (N.J.), 213

 Williams College (Mass.), 59, 74, 76, 101

 Williams, John A. (Tony), xxi, 33, 34

 Wilson, Mitchell B. ("Mick"), 123, 137

 Wilson, Woodrow, 124

 Wisconsin, University of (Stevens Point), 61, 244; (Superior) 250

 Wittenberg University (Ohio), 128, 242, 265

 Wright, Charles (anti-hazing activist), 47

 Yale University, xvi, 101, 103, 117, 238

 York College of Pennsylvania, 258

 zero tolerance, xii, 29-33, 43, 74-76, 103

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