Hazing News

HazingPrevention Week Prepping and Term Paper Time Part Two: Additional Sources cited by the Association of Fraternity/Sorority Advisors

Kudos to the AFA for compiling this!!! Moderator


Association of Fraternity/Sorority Advisors Annual Meeting December 2, 2011 – Educational Block V – Landmark 5

Fraternity/Sorority Research: Contributing to the Knowledge Community

Anita Cory, Jami Harrison, Gentry McCreary, Joy Hamm, & Paul Kittle


Title: How College Women Perceive Web-Based Alcohol Education Impacts Their Drinking Behaviors – Jami Harrison

Findings: Based on findings derived from small focus group interviews, web-based alcohol education is not effective and does not change the drinking behavior of the students. Participants indicate in-person programming, course lectures, print material provided by health and wellness services, and posters in their chapter houses are more beneficial in alcohol education. Online programming allows students to multi-task, share answers for the quizzes, and not pay attention to the information. One woman shared that her peers heard some of the facts and used it as a challenge; they drank even more to prove AlcoholEdu was wrong in how much one person could drink.

Research Questions:

Each of the following research questions contributed to the primary purpose of the study. This study sought to understand students’ attitudes towards alcohol education, the effectiveness of web-based alcohol education programs, and if web-based education altered students’ drinking behavior.

  1. How do college women view alcohol education?
  2. What are the attitudes of college women towards web-based alcohol educationprograms?
  3. To what extent does drinking behavior change as a result of using a web-based alcoholeducation program?

Key References:

Christie-Mizell, C. A., & Peralta, R. L. (2009). The gender gap in alcohol consumption during late adolescence and young adulthood: Gendered attitudes and adult roles. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 410-426.

Kolb, D. A., Boyatzis, R. E., &Mainemelis, C. (2001). Experiential leaning theory: Previous research and new directions. In R. J. Sternberg, & L.-F. Shang (Eds.), Perspectives on thinking, learning, and cognitive styles (pp. 193-210). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Perkins, H. W. (2002). Social norms and the prevention of alcohol misuse in collegiate contexts. Journal of Studies on Alcohol Supplement No. 14, 164-172.

Smith, M. A., & Berger, J. B. (2010). Women’s ways of drinking: College women, high-risk alcohol use, and negative consequences. Journal of College Student Development, 51 (1), 35-49.

Wechsler, H., & Nelson, T. F. (2008, June). What we have learned from the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study: Focusing attention on college student alcohol consumption and the environmental conditions that promote it. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 1-10.

Wechsler, H., &Wuethrich, B. (2002).Dying to drink: Confronting binge drinking on college campuses. Emmaus, PA: Rodale Books.

Wechsler, H., Dowdall, G. W., Davenport, A., &Rimm, E. B. (1995).A gender-specific measure of binge drinking among college students.American Journal of Public Health, 85, 982-985.


Title: The Impact of Moral Judgment and Moral Disengagement on Hazing Attitudes and Bystander Behavior in College Males – Gentry McCreary

Research Questions (No data yet – currently hung up in IRB):

  1. Are there differences between fraternity members and non-members in measures of moral judgment, moral disengagement and hazing-supportive attitudes?
  2. Are fraternity members less likely to intervene in a fraternity hazing situation when compared to non-fraternity men? Are fraternity members less likely to intervene in an adolescent bullying situation when compared to non-fraternity men?
  3. Is the difference in response time between the fraternity hazing vignette and the adolescent bullying vignette different between the two groups?
  4. Are their differences in response time between the fraternity hazing vignette and the adolescent hazing vignette between students in different classes (sophomore, junior, senior)?
  5. Do the data fit the theoretical path model? Are moral judgment and moral disengagement predictive of the difference in intervention response time between the two vignettes?
  6. Are the paths between the observed variables different between the two groups or between students in different classes (sophomore, junior, senior)?

Key References:

Allan, E. & Madden, M. (2008). Hazing in view: College students at risk. Initial findings from the National StudyofStudentHazing.

Bandura, A., Barbaranelli, C., Caprara, C. &Pastorellie, C. (1996). Mechanisms of moral disengagement in exercise of moral agency. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71(2), 364-374.

Carroll, A. (2009). Impact of Moral Judgment and Moral Disengagement on Rape-Supportive Attitudes in College Males.Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Alabama.

King, P. & Mayhew, M. (2002). Moral judgment development in higher education: Insights from the Defining Issues Test. Journal of Moral Education, 31 (3), 247-270.

Owen, S., Burke, T., &Vichesky, D. (2008). Hazing in student organizations: Prevalence, attitudes and solutions. Oracle: The Research Journal of the Association of Fraternity Advisors. 3 (1), 40-58.

Zimbardo, P. (2007). The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil. New York: Random House.


Title: Grant to Prevent High-Risk Drinking Among Georgia Southern University Fraternity and Sorority Members – Joy Hamm

Primary Findings: Fraternity and sorority members were very receptive to Social Learning Theory workshop provided during chapter officer transition workshop; most felt that the workshop did make them examine their own behaviors surrounding alcohol use; many leaders reported seeing changes in the way their chapters responded to alcohol-related issues after participation in the workshop.

Research Question:

To what extent does participation in workshops utilizing Bandura’s Social Learning Theory influence chapter leaders perceptions of the role that their modeling plays in the heavy drinking of the members of their organizations.

Key References:

Cashin, J.R., Presley, C. A., &Meilman, P. W. (1998). Alcohol use in the Greek system: Follow the leader. JournalofStudiesonAlcohol,59,63-70.

Larimer, M. E., Turner, A. P., Anderson, B. K., Fader, J. S., Kilmer, J. R., Palmer, R. S., &Cronce, J. M. (2001). Evaluating a brief alcohol intervention with fraternities. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 370 – 380.

The Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention. (2008). Fraternityandsororitymembersandalcoholandotherdruguse. Newton,MA: U.S.Department of Education.

Faulkner, K. K., Alcorn, J. D., & Garvin, R. B. (1988). Prediction of alcohol consumption among fraternity pledges. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 34(2), 12-21.

Kuh, G. D. (1993). Liquid bonding: A cultural analysis of the role of alcohol in fraternity pledgeship. Journal of College Student Development, 34, 327-334.


Title: Impact of Alcohol Skills Training Program (ASTP) on College Fraternity Members’ Drinking Behaviors – Joy Hamm

Hypotheses: Participation in ASTP will reduce members quantity and frequency of drinking; chapter culture will play a role in the effectiveness of the program’s impact; programming elements themselves will play a role in the effectiveness of the program’s impact

Research Questions:

Does the Alcohol Skills Training Program result in decreased high-risk drinking behaviors and negative consequences for national fraternity members? In addition, the following subquestions will be used to answer the overarching question:

Subquestion 1: To what extent does ASTP reduce high-risk drinking behaviors in fraternity members?
Subquestion 2: To what extent does ASTP reduce negative consequences associated with high- risk drinking in fraternity members?

Subquestion 3: What aspects of ASTP make the program successful for use with fraternity members in addressing high-risk drinking behaviors and associated negative consequences? Subquestion 4: Is there an association between a chapter culture that promotes alcohol use and the extent to which the skills taught in ASTP are implemented by participants?

Key References:

Task Force of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. (2002a). A call to action: ChangingthecultureofdrinkingatU.S.Colleges. Washington,D.C.: NationalInstitutesof Health.

Larimer, M. E., Anderson, B. K., Baer, J. S., &Marlatt, G. A. (2000). An individual in context: predictors of alcohol use and drinking problems among Greek and residence hall students. Journal of Substance Abuse, 11(1),53-68.

Larimer, M.E., Turner, A. P., Mallett, K. A., &Geisner, I. M. (2004). Predicting drinking behavior and alcohol-related problems among fraternity and sorority members: Examining the role of descriptive and injunctive norms. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 18(3), 203-212.

Park, A., Sher, K. J., Wood, P. K., Krull, J. L. (2009). Dual mechanisms underlying accentuation of risky drinking via fraternity/sorority affiliation: The role of personality, peer norms, and alcohol availability. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118(2), 241-255.

Borsari, B. E., & Carey, K. B. (1999). Understanding fraternity drinking: Five recurring themes in the literature. Journal of American College Health, 99(48), 30-37. Retrieved December 13, 2007, from

Borsari, B., Hustad, J. T. P., Capone, C. (2009). Alcohol use in the Greek system, 1999-2009: A decade of progress. Current Drug Abuse Reviews, 2, 216-225.


Borsari, B.E., Murphy, J. G., & Barnett, N. P. (2007). Predictors of alcohol use during the first year of college: Implications for prevention. [Electronic version].Addictive Behavior, 32(10), 2062- 2086.

Wechsler, H., Kuh, G., Davenport, A. E. (2009). Fraternities, sororities, and binge drinking: Results from a national study of American colleges. NASPA Journal, 46(3), 395-416.

Wechsler, H., Kuh, G., & Davenport, A. E. (1996). Fraternities, sororities, and binge drinking: Results from a national study of American colleges. NASPA Journal, 33(4), 260-279.

Kuh, G. D. (1993). Liquid bonding: A cultural analysis of the role of alcohol in fraternity pledgeship. Journal of College Student Development, 34, 327-334.


Title: Assessing the efficacy of analytical definitions in hazing education – Paul Kittle

Hypothesis: Students provided with an analytical definition of hazing will recognize hazing activities at a significantly higher rate than students provided with an extensional (current model) definition of hazing.

Research questions/possible findings

  1. Does the use of an analytical definition significantly increase a student’s ability to identify hazing activities in comparison to an extensional definition?
  2. What is the relationship, if any, among demographic variables: sex, geographical location, and ethnicity; and participant ability to identify hazing activities utilizing each treatment?
  3. Analytical definitions serve as an effective tool for increasing student’s ability to identify hazing activities
  4. Significant differences exist between geographic regions in student’s ability to identify hazing
  5. Significant differences exist between the sexes and ethnic groups in student’s ability to identifyhazing

Key References:

Allan, E., & Madden, M. (2008). Hazing in View:College Students at Risk. Retrieved from

Bureau, Dan; Marchell.(2007). A Bystander Framework for Hazing Prevention. Perspectives, Summer, 8-11.

Campo, S., Poulos, G., Sipple, J. (2005). Prevalence and Profiling: Hazing Among College Students and Points of Intervention. American Journal of Health Behavior, 29(2), 137-149.

Ellsworth, C. (2006). Definitions of Hazing: Differences Among Selected Student Organizations. Oracle: The Research Journal of the Association of Fraternity Advisors, 2(1), 46-60.

Hollmann, Barbara. (2002). Hazing: Hidden Campus Crime. New Directions for Student Services, 99, 11- 23.

Holmes, Heather Wishart. (1999). The role of hazing in the sorority pledge process (Doctoral dissertation, State University of New York at Buffalo, 1999). Dissertation Abstracts, 1(1), 115.

Lewis, T., Thombs, D. (2005) Perceived Risks and Normative Beliefs as Explanatory Models for College Student Alcohol Involvement: An Assessment of a Campus with Conventional Alcohol Control Policies and Enforcement Practices. NASPA Journal, 42(2), 202-222.

Lowery, K. L. (1998). The perceived effectiveness of administrative intervention programs to decrease fraternity hazing at independent and church-related colleges in Ohio .Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Toledo

Nuwer, Hank. (2004, September).A Look at Hazing in 2004. Educational program presented at the National Hazing Symposium, Orlando, FL.


Pascaralla, E., Flowers, L., Whitt, E. (2006). Research Revisited: Cognitive Effects of Greek Affiliation in College: Additional Evidence. Oracle: The Research Journal of the Association of Fraternity Advisors, 2(1), 117-132.

Ramey, Don Thomas. (1982). Group climate, campus image and attitudes of fraternity men regarding pledge hazing (Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 1982). Dissertation Abstracts, 1(1), 119.

Shaw, D. (1992). A national study of sorority hazing incidents in selected land grant institutions of higher learning (Doctoral dissertation, Auburn University, 1992).


The Influence of fraternity or sorority Membership on the Leadership Identity Development of College Student Leaders

Framed by an understanding of organizational culture, college student development, and emerging explanations of the process of leadership identity development, this qualitative study examines the influence of fraternity and sorority membership on the leadership identity development of college students. The findings derived from semi-structured interviews with fraternity and sorority leaders illustrate the contexts and cultures in which the participants develop an identity as a leader. In addition, the study describes the processes and experiences that facilitate or hinder development.

The findings suggest organizational factors and meaningful relationships cultivate the development of an identity as a leader for fraternity and sorority members . Further, the study provides support for advancing practical applications of the theoretical construct of leadership identity development.

Research Questions:

  1. How does the cultural milieu of fraternities and sororities shape the leadership identity development of undergraduate members?
  2. How are enculturation processes of fraternity or sorority membership utilized by students to develop an identity as a leader?
  3. What processes help students to create meaning from of their fraternal experience?

Key References:

Asel, A.M., Seifert, T.A., & Pascarella, E.T. (2009). Effects of Greek affiliation on college experiences and outcomes: A portrait of complexity. Oracle: The Research Journal of the Association of Fraternity Advisors, 4(2), 1-15.

Astin, A.W. (1993). What matters in college? Four critical years revisited. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Baxter Magolda, M.B. (2008). Three elements of self-authorship. Journal of College Student

Development, 49(4), 269-284.
Bogdan, R.C. & Biklen, S.K. (2003). Qualitative research for education: An introduction to theory and

methods (4th Ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Brooks, D. (2001). The Organization Kid. The Atlantic Monthly. Retrieved from:

Harms, P.D., Woods, D., Roberts, B., Bureau, D. & Green, A. (2006). Perceptions of leadership in undergraduate fraternal organizations. Oracle: The Research Journal of the Association of Fraternity Advisors, 3(2), 1-10.

Hayek, J.C., Carini, R.M., O’Day, P.T., & Kuh, G.D. (2002). Triumph or tragedy: comparing student engagement levels of members of Greek organizations and other students. Journal of College Student Development, 43(5), 643-663.

Howe, N. & Strauss, W. (2000) Millennials rising: The next great generation. New York, NY: Vintage Books.

Komives, S.R., Longerbeam, S., Owen, J.E., Mainella, F.C., & Osteen, L. (2005). Developing a leadership identity: A grounded theory. Journal of College Student Development.46, 593-611.

Komives, S.R., Longerbeam, S., Owen, J.E., Mainella, F.C., & Osteen, L. (2006). A leadership identity development model: Applications from a grounded theory. Journal of College Student Development, 47, 401-420.

Pascarella, E.T, & Terenzini, P.T. (2005). How college effects students: A third decade of research. Jossey- Bass: San Francisco.

Schein, E.H. (1993). Organizational Culture and Leadership, 2nd ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Seidman, I. (2006). Interviewing as qualitative research: A guide for researchers in education and thesocial sciences. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
Twenge, J. (2006). Generation me: Why today’s young Americans are more confident, assertive, entitledand more miserable than ever before. New York, NY: Free Press.
Winston, R.B., & Saunders, S.A. (1987). The Greek experience: Friend or foe of student development?

New Directions for Student Services, 40, 5-20.


By Hank Nuwer

Journalist Hank Nuwer is the Alaska author of Hazing: Destroying Young Lives; Broken Pledges: The Deadly Rite of Hazing, High School Hazing, Wrongs of Passage and The Hazing Reader. He has written articles or columns on hazing for the Sunday Times of India, Toronto Globe & Mail, Harper's Magazine, Orlando Sentinel, The Chronicle of Higher Education and the New York Times Sunday Magazine. His current book is Hazing: Destroying Young Lives from Indiana University Press. He is married to Malgorzata Wroblewska Nuwer of Warsaw, Poland and Fairbanks, Alaska. Nuwer is a former columnist for the Greenville (Ohio)Early Bird and former managing editor of the Fairbanks Daily News-Miner in Alaska.
Nuwer was named the Ohio Society of Professional Journalists columnist of the year in 2021 for his “After Darke” column in the Early Bird. He also won third place for the column in 2022 from the Indiana chapter of the Society of Professional Journalists. He and his wife Gosia, recently of Union City, Ind., have owned 20 acres in Alaska for many years. “The move is a sort-of coming home for us,” said Nuwer. As a journalist, he’s written about the Alaskan Iditarod sled-dog race and other Alaska topics. Read his musings in his blog at Real Alaska Daily-- and in his weekly column "Far from Randolph" in the Winchester Star-Gazette of Randolph County, Indiana.

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