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Term Paper Time and HazingPrevention Week Prepping Time: University of Buffalo supplies some annotated hazing bibliographical links for students

Moderator:  Note that this great info is from the UNIVERSITY OF BUFFALO and is authored by Katelyn Laurey.    In addition. there is the Hazing Collection (my philanthropy under Hank Nuwer Collection) at Buffalo State’s Butler Library archives under the care of archivist Daniel Dilandro.

Here are the links cited by Katelyn Laurey: Nice job, UB and Katelyn–and Dan and Buff State!!!

Citation:
“Fraternity.” The World Book Encyclopedia.Vol. 7. 1997.

Annotation:
This source defines a fraternity in the U.S, members, chapters, years founded and the National Headquarters. This as a good source that could be used as more background information or to possibly look for a fraternity near you to interview a member for research or something. You can really get a sense of how many different chapters there are and how integrated greek-life can be on various campuses.

Electronic Reference Source:

Citation:
Encyclopedia of Education. Ed. James W. Guthrie. Vol. 6. 2nd ed. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2002. p 2250-2253. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Gale. UNIV AT BUFFALO. 21 April 2008.
<http://library.buffalo.edu/libraries/e-resources/GaleVirtRef.html>.

Annotation:
This source gives a great history of how hazing began. According to this entry, rushing was a way for the chapter houses to remain full. The pledges were made to run errands and such for upperclassmen. Originally hazing was a punishment for unfinished household chores. The humiliation and torture is more current. It is crazy how things have changed from some harmless tasks, to just cruel acts forced upon pledges and new members by upperclassmen. There was a sort of “snowball effect” with the way things have progressively become worse over the years.

Web Sites:

Citation:
Sports Hazing Incidents. 3 June 2002. ESPN. 26 March 2008.
<http://espn.go.com/otl/hazing/list.html>.

Annotation:
This is a composite of different sports hazing incidents. The incidents span from 1980 to 2000 on this website. This website may be valuable because it really allows for you to see how much hazing dos occur in athletics at some high schools, colleges and universities. It is mind blowing that there are so many hazing incidents that you don’t hear a lot about unless they become fatal. There should be even more awareness on the subject of hazing. Some people don’t realize that belonging should not come at the cost of embarrassment.

Citation Inside Hazing. Understanding Hazardous Hazing. 22 April 2008.
<www.insidehazing.com>.

Annotation:
In this website you can find the who, what, when, where, and why of hazing as well as warning signs that hazing may be occurring. There is a link that you can go to in order to view times that various television networks and other media have done stories about hazing. This is a very comprehensive, easy to read and follow website where you can obtain some fast facts if you don’t know anything about hazing. It also refers you to more sources.

Books:

Citation:
Kean, Rob. The pledge / New York : Warner Books, c1999.

Annotation:
This is a fictional book about a prestigious college whose fraternity ends up killing a pledge. In order to uphold the name of the school as well as the name of the fraternity. The book opens from the view of Chad Ewing who is the pledge. He wakes up blind, beaten, and unable to function. He was a huge mess bleeding and laying in his own vomit, etc. naked. There were horrible poems written on various parts of his body that were written by the higher ups in the fraternity. When his body was found they try to keep it a secret by saying that it was an accident and he got drunk and fell off of the balcony.

This source gave me a good picture of what types of things go on in a fraternity as far as the lifestyle, and the brotherhood behind it. You can see how important it is to the members as well as alumni to keep the name of the fraternity clean.

Citation:
Leemon, Thomas M. The Rites of Passage in a Student Culture: A Study of the Dynamics of Transition.New York and London: Teachers College Press, 1972.

Annotation:
This book gives an anthropological view of Greek-life. The Leemon was able to get an unrestricted view of what goes on. She was not able to give any names etc. so that it can all remain confidential. Reasons for pledging and why pledges put up with the hazing is also explained in this book. Leemon kept a nearly day-by-day record of what went on.

Citation:
Nuwer, Hank. Broken Pledges.Atlanta, Georgia: Longstreet Press, 1990.

Annotation:
This is a book about the death of a pledge in a fraternity. His name was Chuck and he’d drank way to much and gotten a blood alcohol content of over four times the legal limit, which made it .46. After drinking way too much Chuck’s pledge brother gave him a shower and changed his clothes, which washed away any signs that his internal organs were being effected. After he’d drank way too much and “passed out” he was placed on an “uncovered tick mattress.” The fraternity brothers figured he would sleep it off, little did they know that he would never wake again.

Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles:

Citation:
Lipka, Sara. “Student-Affairs meeting: Hazing Extends Beyond Fraternities ; What Parents Expect. Chronicle of Higher Education. 3/21/2008, Vol. 54 Issue 28, pA21-A21. Academic Search Premier. U Buffalo Lib., Buffalo. 17 April 2008.
<http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=31496033&site=ehost-live>

Annotation:
This article takes a new perspective on hazing. It was found that outside of the places hazing is commonly practiced, places like performing arts organizations and academic clubs are hazing as well. This is a good article because you don’t see hazing portrayed as negative like usual, therefore, you can find new ways to argue your point whatever your stance is.

Citation:
Barry, Adam E. PhD. “Using Theory-Based Constructs to Explore the Impact of Greek Membership on Alcohol-Related Beliefs and Behaviors: A Systematic Literature Review”. JOURNAL OF AMERICAN COLLEGE HEALTH. 56.3(2007)307-315. Academic Search Premier U Buffalo Lib., Buffalo. 17 April 2008.
<http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=27957573&site=ehost-live>.

Annotation:
This article explores the correlation between Greek-Life and alcohol use and misuse. It was found that Greeks drank more often and a larger amount than non-Greeks, along with many other surprising findings. This article also gives some information concerning the effects of the excessive alcohol consumption over various time spans.

Newspaper Article:

Citation:
Rose, Derek. “Charges in Frat Hazing.” New York Daily News 17 May 2006: 55. Lexis Nexis Academic Universe. U. of Buffalo Lib., Buffalo. 17 April 2008.
<http://ublib.buffalo.edu/libraries/e-resources/lexisnexis.html>

Annotation:

The first two first two sentences of this article are as follows: “TWO CITY MEN were charged yesterday with forcing fraternity pledges at upstate Hartwick College to do pushups in urine-soaked garbage containing broken glass. The duo, along with a third frat brother, also made pledges carry feces-covered rocks for miles, police said.” It goes on to give an account of who was involved and exactly what the outcome of their actions was. This is a good source because is an actual incident where pledges were made to do something utterly disgusting. Those involved were punished, so you are able to see the outcome of such an incident.

Additional Sources:

Citation:
“fraternity and sorority.” Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. 14 Apr. 2008.
<http://library.buffalo.edu/libraries/e-resources/eb.html>.

Annotation:
This encyclopedia entry gives the function of a social fraternity, which is, “is to serve as a collegiate “home” and dormitory for its members, but the emphasis varies from school to school.” The professional, as opposed to social fraternities, focus on specific majors and are more academic centered.

This source gives you some background information concerning fraternities and sororities. You can read to find out what the first honorary society was and how it came about. This is a good source to begin with so that you can get a little history.

Citation:
Judy L. Van Raalte, Allen E. Cornelious, Darwyn E. Linder and Britton W. Brewer. “The Relationship Between Hazing and Team Cohesion”. Journal of Sport Behavior. 30.4(2007): 491-507. Academic Search Premier. U Buffalo Lib., Buffalo. 17 April 2008
<http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=27497709&site=ehost-live>.

Annotation:
This article points out the fact that 44 states have laws designed to give harsh penalties to anyone found to haze. People join teams, fraternities, sororities, etc., in order to identify and become part of a group according to this study. There does not need to be hazing in order for there to be group cohesiveness and loyalty, there is simply a need for team building. Team building is a safe, fun and effective way to strengthen the bond between group members.

Citation:
Holmes, Heather. “The Role of Hazing in the Sorority Pledge Process.” Diss. 1999.

Annotation:
This is a dissertation that takes various experiences from hazing and collaborates them . Right in chapter one there is the recollection of one female that pledged. On one one of their hazing incidents they were left with “serious contusions and abrasions of the knees after a knee race on slushy, icy parking lots.” This is a very insightful source if you plan to look into hazing more in depth. There is information about the history of hazing today and why people do it. Some reasons some people choose to pledge are to feel a sense of belonging and to fit in. In some colleges and universities it can seem as though Greek-life is the center of campus life.

Citation:
YouTube. 19 March 2007. USAF Hazing. 9 April 2008.
Citation:
YouTube. 11 Oct. 2007. Alfred University Hazing Incident. 9 April 2008.

Annotation:
The first video is of the USAF pouring various things on a member before he leaves them. This type of thing is often done in pledging and hazing without a fun intent. The second video goes on to tell about the hazing incident at Alfred University where freshman team members were forced to drink excessively. This article was chosen because it gives a good picture to something very real that has occurred on a campus not too far from our own. It really opens your eyes to what is going on at some team parties.

 

 

 

By Hank Nuwer

Hank Nuwer is the Indiana-based author of Broken Pledges: The Deadly Rite of Hazing, High School Hazing, Wrongs of Passage and The Hazing Reader. He has written articles or columns on hazing for the Sunday Times of India, Toronto Globe & Mail, Harper's Magazine, Orlando Sentinel, The Chronicle of Higher Education and the New York Times Sunday Magazine. His new book is Hazing: Destroying Young Lives from Indiana University Press.

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