1) On line: The pledging experiences of members of Black Greek-Lettered organizations from 1970 to 1990
by Jenkins, Antonio Dewan, Ed.D., THE UNIVERSITY OF MEMPHIS, 2010, 133 pages; 3448255
In 1990, the leadership of the Black Greek-Lettered organizations that comprise the National Pan-Hellenic Council (NPHC) agreed to ban pledging as the official member entry process for new members. For 20 years (1990-2010), each organization has developed and used a membership intake process (MIP) to replace pledging in order to prevent hazing and injury to prospective members. Studies on membership entry into these organizations have focused mainly on fraternities during the MIP era (1990-2010) and the persistence of hazing during their process.
This study explored the experiences of men and women who joined BGLOs prior to the 1990 ban on pledging among the organizations. This study adds to the body of research on BGLOs, specifically the experiences of members joining when pledging was the official process of membership entry.
This study used the theoretical framework of Critical Race Theory as well as Black Feminist Theory and student development theory to explore the broad range of African American men and women experiences in pledging Black Greek-Lettered fraternities or sororities.
The qualitative framework of phenomenology provides the appropriate methods for participants to share information, which is a part of the organizational history and culture of BGLOs.
Several themes arose from the members overall pledging experience. Members were introduced to BGLOs in multiple ways. Members either celebrated crossing the burning sands or had some type of controversy. Members created varied relationships with line big brothers and sisters, others outside the organizations, and their own line members. Members defined the differences between pledging and hazing. In addition, members shared perspectives on how the national organizations, specifically the leaders of the organizations, can improve the future direction of BGLOs in membership entry and combating hazing.
2) Nearly 3/4ths of athletes in Nebraska study say they were hazed: Athletic hazing in the Nebraska State College System: An introductory investigation
by Geisert, Cameron M., Ed.D., UNITED STATES SPORTS ACADEMY, 2010, 173 pages; 3437618
The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence of hazing in athletics among the three institutions that comprise the Nebraska State College System. Student-athletes were asked to respond to a web-based survey composed of numerous hazing-related questions and all participants were from athletic teams competing for one of the three institutions in the Nebraska State College System. Overall, 73.8% (n=262) of the student-athletes indicated that they had been hazed or had been hazed and then hazed another teammate at one time. A total of 62.8% (n=223) of the student-athletes indicated that they had been subjected to mental hazing while 54.6% (n=194) reported that they had been subjected to alcohol-related hazing in some form. Furthermore, a majority of student-athletes indicated that they perceived athletic hazing to be at least a small problem on their campuses or in intercollegiate athletics overall, yet also noted that they were unaware of what current anti-hazing policies their institutions had.
Chi-square analysis brought to light that within the Nebraska State College System there is a significant difference between the hazing rates of male and female student-athletes as well as those student-athletes that have a male and female head coach, the number of years a student-athlete has been on his or her team, and those that attend an institution that sponsors initiation practices for first-year student-athletes and those that do not. Results from this study also showed that student-athletes suffered varied consequences as a result of being hazed and encountered both positive and negative feelings as well.
This study brought to light that athletic hazing is indeed occurring within the Nebraska State College System. The mere fact that seven out of every ten student-athletes competing for one of the three institutions comprising the Nebraska State College System illustrates that athletic hazing is a part of the athletic culture within these institutions. The prevalence of athletic hazing combined with many of the student-athlete perceptions revealed in the study shows that the Nebraska State College System and the three individual institutions that make it up are in a vicarious position in regards to hazing in terms of potential legal and image ramifications now and in the future.
Advisor:Â Â Â Â Cromartie, Fred J.
School:Â Â Â UNITED STATES SPORTS ACADEMY
Source:Â Â Â Â DAI-A 72/01, p. , Jul 2011
Source Type:Â Â Â Â Ed.D.
Subjects:Â Â Â Sports Management
Publication Number:Â Â Â Â 3437618
3) Hazing studied by Manitoba researcher: The cycle of abuse in sport hazing: Is it simply a case of boys being boys?
by Abdulrehman, Rehman Y., Ph.D., UNIVERSITY OF MANITOBA , 2007, 99 pages; NR26266
Research and a model of sexual aggression indicate a possible cycle of abuse whereby males who were victims of child sexual abuse may be at risk of abusing others (Abdulrehman & De Luca, 2001; Malamuth, Sockloskie, Koss, & Tanaka, 1991). Given that many hazing incidences are reported to include sexual abuse (Abdulrehman & De Luca, 2000; Robinson, 1998), along with the fact that sexual aggression is common amongst athletes (Brackenridge, 2003; Smith & Stewart, 2003), this study aimed to empirically explore associations among these factors and other issues related to hazing. Responses from a sample of male introductory psychology students from the University of Manitoba were categorized into those who had experienced forms of abusive hazing and those who had not experienced forms of abusive hazing. Findings indicated that abuse (emotional, physical, and sexual) was present in hazing approximately half of all hazing instances. The groups responses to Fischer’s Forcible Date Rape Scale (1986), which measured tolerances toward sexual aggression, were then compared. The predicted associative link between sexually abusive hazing practices and tolerance toward sexual aggression was not as strong as expected. Alternative explanations for this counter-intuitive finding are explored. Participants of hazing were more likely to view their experiences as neutral or positive, as opposed to negative. Theoretical hypotheses of cognitive distortions and the influence of context and gender are discussed.
Exploring the Evolved Concept of NEWCOMER: Experimental Tests of a Cognitive Model